Yes, but we do not recommend it. A basement is an uninsulated, concrete structure built using an expensive “forms” process. Then you build an insulated, concrete dome on top using a very efficient construction process. This is redundant and wasteful. It is easier, less expensive, and usually much better to build a larger dome.
However, we have built over existing basements which works in some situations. We have also inflated an Airform with a built-in vertical stem wall from the bottom of an excavation. This creates a basement as it is backfilled to desired level. This creates a super basement as it is water proof and super insulated. This works well in some places where the lot size is small and land is conserved.